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    What is congenital heart disease?

    Home >> >> What is congenital heart disease?
    What is congenital heart disease?
    What are the types of congenital heart disease? Congenital heart disease, referred to as congenital heart disease, is the most common type of congenital defect in children and is the main cause of premature death in children. Eight out of every 1,000 infants in China suffer from congenital heart disease. Different types of congenital heart disease have different symptoms.

    Some children with congenital heart disease are asymptomatic and are found only during physical examinations. Some have severe dyspnea, syncope, cyanosis, etc. The presence or absence of symptoms depends primarily on the type of disease and the presence or absence of complications. According to hemodynamics combined with pathophysiological changes, congenital heart disease can be divided into three categories: no shunt, left to right shunt, and right to left shunt. Introduced one by one below.

    1, no congenital heart disease

    It means that there are no abnormal pathways and shunts between the right and left sides of the heart or arteries and veins, and no purpura is produced. That is, the atria and the ventricle are normally closed and cannot communicate with each other, and there are no abnormal pathways between arteries and veins. Including aortic coarctation, pulmonary valve stenosis, primary pulmonary hypertension, simple pulmonary artery dilatation and other lesion types. The typical symptom is that the patient does not have bruising on the skin.

    2. Left-to-right shunt type

    Atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, main pulmonary artery septal defect, and aortic sinus aneurysm rupture into the right heart or pulmonary artery and other simple congenital heart disease is generally left to right shunt type. This type refers to abnormal channels between the left and right sides of the blood circulation pathway. In the early stage, because the pressure of the left hemi-circular circulation of the heart is greater than the pressure of the right hemi-circulumary circulation, the blood flow is usually shunted from left to right without cyanosis. When the pulmonary artery or right ventricle pressure rises and exceeds the left heart pressure, it causes blood to divert from right to left and appears temporary cyanosis. Common factors that alter this hemodynamic are crying, holding breath or other pathological conditions. It is also called latent cyanotic congenital heart disease.

    3, right-to-left shunt type

    Complex congenital heart diseases such as tetralogy of Fallot, trilogy of Fallot, right ventricle double outlet and transposition of major arteries, and persistent arterial trunk are mostly right-to-left shunt types. The typical characteristic is that the child has a bruising around the mouth and even at the time of birth. The reason is that the venous blood in the right cardiovascular cavity flows into the left cardiovascular cavity through abnormal traffic, and a large amount of venous blood is injected into the systemic circulation. It can be seen that the malformations included in this model also cause abnormal traffic in the left and right sides of the cardiovascular chamber.
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